Constipation

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Risk factors

  • Initiation of solid food and cow’s milk
  • Toilet training
  • School entry

Presentation

  • Straining
  • Crampy abdominal pain
  • <2 defecations/wk

Complications

  • Fissures, hemorrhoids
  • Encopresis
  • Enuresis, UTIs

Treatment

  • dietary fiber
  • Limit cow milk to <24 oz (700 mL)
  • Laxatives, suppositories, enemas